Blocos e Acordos econômicos

GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES (GATS) - The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is the first multilateral and legally binding set of rules covering international trade in services. The GATS emerged in January 1995 as an integral part of the WTO. The functioning of the GATS is the responsibility of the Council for Trade in Services, made up of representatives from all WTO countries.


GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT) - The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has been supplanted as an international organization by the World Trade Organization. An updated General Agreement is now one of the WTO agreements. See “World Trade Organization”, page 15.


NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA) - The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a comprehensive free trade agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico and the United States, established on January 1, 1994. Its objectives include: eliminating barriers to trade within, and facilitating the movement of goods and services across borders; promote fair competition conditions; increase investment opportunities; provide sufficient and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights; create effective processes for the implementation and application of the Agreement, for its joint administration and the resolution of disputes; and lay a foundation for more trilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation.

FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS (FTAA) - The Heads of State and Government of the 34 democracies of the hemisphere, at the Summit of the Americas held in Miami in 1994, agreed to create a Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas (FTAA), in which barriers to trade and investment will be progressively removed, as well as the conclusion of negotiations on the Agreement by 2005.

LATIN AMERICAN INTEGRATION ASSOCIATION (ALADI) - The Latin American Integration Association (ALADI) was established by the Treaty of Montevideo in August 1980 and became operational in March 1981. The Association seeks to foster economic cooperation among its members, included through regional trade agreements and sectoral agreements. Members (12) include: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. ALADI replaced the Latin American Free Trade Association, which was established in 1960 with the aim of developing a common market in Latin America.

INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (IDB) - Created in 1959, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) supports economic and social development and regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. It does this primarily through lending to public institutions, but it also finances private projects, usually in infrastructure and capital markets development. Members include: Germany, Argentina, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, El Salvador, Ecuador, Slovenia, Spain, United States, Finland, France , Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Netherlands, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, United Kingdom, Dominican Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.

TRADE CAPABILITY - Developing and improving countries' basic skills and capacity in the area of ​​trade, through technical cooperation and other forms of assistance, in order to optimize their participation in negotiations, implement their trade commitments, and face the challenges of maximizing the benefits of hemispheric integration. See “Hemispheric Cooperation Program”, page 15.

UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL LAW (UNCITRAL) - Created in December 1966; the United Nations Commission on International Mercantile Law (UNCITRAL) aims to promote the progressive harmonization and unification of international commercial law. Members (36) include: Germany, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Argentina (alternate annually with Uruguay), Austria, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, China, Singapore, Colombia, Spain, United States, Russian Federation , Fiji, France, Honduras, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Morocco, Mexico, Paraguay, Kenya, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Romania, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand and Uganda.


UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (ECLAC) - The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It was created with the objective of contributing to the economic development of Latin America, through the coordination of actions aimed at this purpose, and to strengthen economic relations between countries and with other nations of the world. The promotion of the region's social development was later included among its main objectives. Its members (41) include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Spain, United States, France, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Netherlands, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela; associate members – Anguilla, Aruba, Bonaire, Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and Montserrat.


TRADE NEGOTIATION COMMITTEE (CNC) - As part of the Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas process, the Trade Negotiations Committee (CNC) oversees and manages the FTAA negotiation process at the vice-ministerial level. The TNC is responsible for guiding the work of the FTAA negotiating groups and special committees and for deciding on the general structure of the Agreement and on institutional issues.


TRIPARTITE COMMITTEE - The Tripartite Committee is made up of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). It provides analytical, technical and financial support to the FTAA process and maintains the official FTAA website. Each of the Tripartite Committee institutions also responds to requests for technical assistance related to FTAA matters, especially from the smaller economies of the Hemisphere.


ANDEAN COMMUNITY (CAN) - Formerly known as the Andean Group (created in 1969) and the Andean Common Market, the Andean Community (CAN) is a sub-regional organization made up of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela and the entities and institutions that form the Andean Integration System. The key objectives of the Andean Community are: to promote the balanced and harmonious development of the member countries under equitable conditions; stimulate growth through integration and economic and social cooperation; improve participation in the regional integration process with the aim of progressively forming a common Latin American market; fight for a gradual improvement in the standard of living of its inhabitants.


CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY AND COMMON MARKET (CARICOM) - CARICOM is a group of 15 member countries created by the Treaty of Chaguaramas in 1973 to promote economic integration through the free movement of goods and operational cooperation in the areas of education and health . The Treaty was revised in 2001 to make the common market an economic union, the Caribbean Common Market and Economy (CSME), which provides for the free movement of goods, services, capital and labor, the coordination of macroeconomic policies and the harmonization of laws and institutions. The member countries (15) are: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. The Bahamas is a member of the Community but not of the Common Market. Included in Associate Members (3): Anguilla, Turk and Caicos Islands and British Virgin Islands. http://www.


UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD) - Created in December 1964, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) aims to increase the integration of developing countries into the world economy. UNCTAD is the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development and related issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. Membership (191) includes all members of the United Nations plus the Holy See.


ASIA AND PACIFIC ECONOMIC COOPERATION (APEC) - Established in November 1989, the Asia and Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is the first forum to facilitate economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Pacific Basin . APEC members (21) are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Philippines, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Russia, Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam.


SUMMIT OF THE AMERICAS - The Summit of the Americas process, which began after the first Summit of the Americas in December 1994, brings together the Heads of State and Government of the Western Hemisphere to discuss common concerns, seek solutions, and form a shared vision of future development of the region, of an economic, social or political nature.


NATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR STRENGTHENING TRADE CAPACITY - In the context of the FTAA Hemispheric Cooperation Program, some countries have developed national or regional strategies that define, prioritize, and articulate their needs related to strengthening their capacity to: prepare for negotiations; implement commercial commitments and adapt to integration. To facilitate coordination and share experiences, the strategies follow a common format that was developed by the Consultative Group on Smaller Economies, with the help of the Tripartite Committee.


FORUM OF THE AMERICAS ON TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - Side event held by various civil society organizations in connection with the meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade in the Hemisphere participating in the Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas (FTAA) negotiations. edu/nsc/pages/FTAA.html


AMERICAS BUSINESS FORUM (ABF) - Parallel event held by the private sector in connection with the meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade in the Hemisphere participating in the negotiations for the Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas (FTAA).


SUMMIT IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW GROUP (SIRG) - The Summit Implementation Review Group (SIRG) was created in March 1995 to coordinate and implement the Miami Action Plan mandates. The SIRG is made up of the 34 democratically elected governments of the hemisphere, which are represented by their appointed National Coordinators. The SIRG is responsible for reporting annually the progress made in meeting the Plan of Action to the Foreign Ministers. The Ministers review the information on the occasion of the Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly. In the context of the FTAA, a set of measures approved by the Ministers Responsible for Trade at the Ministerial Meeting in Toronto on November 4, 1999. They comprise a series of eight measures related to customs and ten measures related to transparency, included, respectively, in the Annex II and Annex III of the Toronto Ministerial Declaration. http://www.


CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET (CMCA) - The Central American Common Market was created on December 13, 1960 when Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua signed the General Treaty of Central American Economic Integration. Costa Rica acceded on July 23, 1962. In October 1993, the five MCCA countries signed the Guatemala Protocol, which amended the 1960 General Treaty. The Protocol redefines the objectives, principles and stages of economic integration, and calls for members to establish a customs union. More specifically, the Guatemala Protocol calls on members to realize the CMCA free trade area by phasing out tariffs and trade barriers, granting national treatment to intraregional trade, and adopting a regional legal framework that charges rules of origin, safeguards, unfair commercial practices, intellectual property, services, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, and technical criteria and rules.


SOUTHERN COMMON MARKET (MERCOSUR) - The Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) was created through the Treaty of Asunción on March 26, 1991. Between 1991 and 1995, MERCOSUR members, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, involved in a series of negotiations to establish a common external tariff, which took place on 1 January 1995. The deadline for the full implementation of the customs union by all members in all sectors is 2006. The new launch of the MERCOSUR integration in 2000 required closer macroeconomic coordination and other prioritization issues such as institutional strengthening, the common external tariff, dispute resolution, trade remedies and competition policy, and investment incentives. Chile and Bolivia became associate members, respectively, in 1996 and 1997.


ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) - The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together 30 member countries in a unique forum to discuss, develop and improve economic and social policies. It was established in December 1960 and has been in operation since September 1961. Members (30) include Germany, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, South Korea, Denmark, Slovakia, Spain, United States, Finland, France, Greece, Netherlands, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Norway, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey. http://www.


ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS) - On April 30, 1948, the Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS) was adopted by 21 nations in the hemisphere. It affirmed its commitment to common goals and respect for the sovereignty of each nation. Since then, the OAS has expanded to include Caribbean nations and Canada. Through the Summit of the Americas process, the Hemisphere's Heads of State and Government have given important responsibilities and mandates to the OAS, including: human rights; civil society participation; improve cooperation to address the problem of illegal drugs; support the process to create the Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas; education, justice and security. Members (35) include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal membership since 1962), Dominica, El Salvador, Ecuador, United States United States, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.


WORLD CUSTOMS ORGANIZATION (WCO) - Established in 1952 as the Council on Customs Cooperation, the Council adopted the working name World Customs Organization (WCO) in 1994 to more clearly reflect its transition to a truly global intergovernmental institution. The WCO is an independent intergovernmental body whose mission is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of customs administrations worldwide. With 159 member countries, it is the only intergovernmental organization in the world with competence in customs matters.


WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (WIPO) - Created in 1967, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is an international organization dedicated to promoting the use and protection of literary, artistic and scientific works. WIPO is one of 16 specialized agencies in the United Nations system. It administers 23 international treaties dealing with different aspects of intellectual property protection. The Organization has 179 member countries.


WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) - The World Trade Organization succeeded the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) on January 1, 1995. It is the only multilateral organization serving as a negotiating forum for trade liberalization, an entity to oversee the implementation of multilaterally accepted and binding trade rules and a forum for the settlement of trade disputes. The WTO's objective is to promote the liberalization and expansion of international trade in goods and services under certain and predictable conditions. The WTO has 146 members.


HEMISPHERIC COOPERATION PROGRAM (HCP) - The Hemispheric Cooperation Program (HCP) aims to strengthen the capacities of countries seeking assistance to participate in FTAA negotiations, implement their trade commitments, and address the challenges and maximize the benefits of hemispheric integration, including productive capacity and competitiveness in the region. The Program includes a mechanism to help these countries develop national and/or regional strategies aimed at enhancing trade capacity that define, prioritize and articulate their needs and programs that pursue these strategies, and identify sources of financial and non-financial support. funding to meet those needs. The PCH was endorsed by the FTAA Ministers Responsible for Trade during their meeting in Quito in November 2002. http://www.


URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS - Started in September 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay, the eighth round of multilateral trade negotiations encompassed a broad-ranging agenda that covered many new trade policy issues. The resulting agreement, concluded in December 1993 and signed in April 1994, extended the multilateral trading system into several new areas, especially trade in services and intellectual property rights, and brought the important sectors of agriculture and industry textiles in multilateral trade rules. The outcome of the Uruguay Round was the establishment of the World Trade Organization in January 1995.


EUROPEAN UNION (EU) - The European Union (EU) groups fifteen member states through a series of common institutions where decisions on specific matters of joint interest are taken at the European level. It was founded as the European Community after World War II to improve political, economic and social cooperation among its members. The “single market”, adopted in 1992 through the Treaty of nationals in 12 EU countries, together with a European Central Bank, came into being on 1 January 2002. The member states (15) are Germany, Austria, Belgium, Maastricht , is the center of the current European Union. It encompasses freedom of movement for goods, services, people and capital and is underpinned by a variety of supportive policies. A common currency, the “Euro”, which replaced the former currencies of Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Sweden. Ten new member countries were invited to join the EU on 1 May 2004: Cyprus, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Czech Republic.